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ການຮື້ຟື້ນຄະດີແມ່ນຫຍັງ?

ປະຊາຊົນ ແລະ ພະນັກງານກຳມະກອນໄດ້ຖາມຂ້າພະເຈົ້າຕະຫຼອດວ່າ: “ການຮື້ຟື້ນຄະດີແມ່ນຫຍັງ?” ແລະ ຈະດຳເນີນການແນວໃດ? ໄດ້ອ່ານກົດໝາຍວ່າດ້ວຍການດຳເນີນຄະດີແພ່ງມາດຕາ 3   (ໃໝ່) ວ່າດ້ວຍການອະທິບາຍຄໍາສັບ ກໍບໍ່ປະກົດມີ. ຖ້າຫາກບໍ່ແມ່ນນັກກົດໝາຍອາຊີບແລ້ວ ກໍມີຄວາມຍາກທີ່ຈະເຂົ້າໃຈໄດ້ເປັນຢ່າງດີ ແລະ ຄົບຖ້ວນ.

ການຮື້ຟື້ນຄະດີ (ແພ່ງ) ໄດ້ກໍານົດໄວ້ໃນມາດຕາ 313 ຫາ ມາດຕາ 321 ຂອງກົດໝາຍວ່າດ້ວຍການດຳເນີນຄະດີແພ່ງ ຂ້າພະເຈົ້າຂໍສະຫຼຸບຫຍໍ້ໆເພື່ອໃຫ້ເຂົ້າໃຈງ່າຍໆຄືດັ່ງນີ້:

ການຮື້ຟື້ນຄະດີແມ່ນການດຳເນີນຕາມຄຳຮ້ອງຂໍຂອງຄູ່ຄວາມ ຊຶ່ງແມ່ນ ໂຈດ, ຈຳເລີຍ, ບຸກຄົນທີສາມ ຫຼື ຫົວໜ້າອົງໄອຍະການປະຊາຊົນສູງສຸດ, ຕໍ່ຄຳສັ່ງ, ຄຳຊີ້ຂາດ, ຄຳຕັດສິນ ຫຼື ຄຳພິພາກສາຂອງສານທີ່ໃຊ້ໄດ້ຢ່າງເດັດຂາດແລ້ວ.

ຜູ້ໃດມີສິດຂໍຮື້ຟື້ນຄະດີ? ມີ 03 ພວກດັ່ງນີ້:

  • ໂຈດ ຫຼື ຈຳເລີຍໃນຄະດີນັ້ນໆ.
  • ບຸກຄົນອື່ນ (ບຸກຄົນທີສາມ ມາດຕາ 75 ດ.ພ).
  • ຫົວໜ້າອົງການປະຊາຊົນສູງສຸດເພື່ອຄວາມຖືກຕ້ອງຕາມກົດໝາຍ

ຈະຂໍຮື້ຟື້ນເອກະສານໃດຂອງຄະດີ ມີ 4 ເອກະສານດັ່ງນີ້ຄື: 1. ຄຳສັ່ງ 2. ຄຳຊີ້ຂາດ 3. ຄຳຕັດສິນ 4. ຄຳພິພາກສາ (ຂອງສານທີ່ໃຊ້ໄດ້ເດັດຂາດແລ້ວ).

ສານໃດມີອຳນາດພິຈາລະນາຕັດສິນ? ມີແຕ່ສານປະຊາຊົນສູງສຸດສານດຽວເທົ່ານັ້ນເປັນຜູ້ພິຈາລະນາຕັດສິນ.

ມີກໍລະນີໃດແດ່ຈຶ່ງສາມາດຂໍຮື້ຟື້ນຄະດີໄດ້? ມີ 5 ກໍລະນີຄື:

  1. ມີພະຍານໃນຄະດີໄດ້ໃຫ້ການເທັດ ຫຼື ຜູ້ຊ່ຽວຊານໄດ້ໃຫ້ຄໍາເຫັນເທັດ,ການແປພາສາເທັດ ຫຼື ການໃຊ້ຫຼັກຖານປອມ ຊຶ່ງພາໃຫ້ການຕັດສິນຄະດີມີຄວາມຜິດພາດ.
  2. ຜູ້ພິພາກສາ ຫຼື ພະນັກງານໄອຍະການປະຊາຊົນໄດ້ເຂົ້າຂ້າງ ອອກຂາ ຊຶ່ງພາໃຫ້ການຕັດສິນຄະດີມີຄວາມຜິດພາດ.
  3. ມີຂໍ້ມູນ ຫຼື ຫຼັກຖານໃໝ່ທີ່ກ່ຽວຂ້ອງກັບຄະດີ ຊຶ່ງຍັງບໍ່ທັນໄດ້ສະເໜີຂຶ້ນໃນຄະດີດັ່ງກວ່າ ແລະ ຜູ້ຮ້ອງຂໍຮື້ຟື້ນກໍບໍ່ສາມາດຮູ້ໄດ້ກ່ຽວກັບຂໍ້ມູນ ຫຼື ຫຼັກຖານໃໝ່ໃນເວລາຕັດສິນນັ້ນ.
  4. ມີເຫດການອື່ນທີ່ຊີ້ບອກເຖິງຂໍ້ມູນຫຼັກຖານໃໝ່ ເຊິ່ງສານບໍ່ໄດ້ຮູ້ໃນເວລາລົງດຳຕັດສິນ ຫຼື ຄຳພິພາກສານັ້ນ.
  5. ມີການສະເໜີຮື້ຟື້ນຂອງບຸກຄົນທີ່ບໍ່ໄດ້ເຂົ້າຮ່ວມໃນການດຳເນີນຄະດີ ກ່ຽວກັບຄຳຕັດສິນທີ່ໃຊ້ໄດ້ຢ່າງເດັດຂາດແລ້ວ ຊຶ່ງແຕະຕ້ອງເຖິງສິດ ແລະ ຜົນປະໂຫຍດອັນຊອບທຳຂອງຜູ້ກ່ຽວ(ບຸກຄົນທີສາມ).

ກຳນົດເວລາຂໍຮື້ຟື້ນຄະດີ:

  • ຫົວໜ້າອົງການປະຊາຊົນສູງສຸດ ມີສິດສະເໜີຮື້ຟື້ນຄະດີ ເພື່ອຄວາມຖືກຕ້ອງທາງດ້ານກົດ ໝາຍໂດຍບໍ່ມີກຳນົດເວລາ (ຂໍໄດ້ຕະຫຼອດ).
  • ສຳລັບໂຈດ ແລະ ຈຳເລີຍ ມີກຳນົດ ໜຶ່ງປີນັບແຕ່ວັນຄຳສັ່ງຊີ້ຂາດ, ຄຳຕັດສິນ, ຄຳພິພາກສາ ຂອງສານໃຊ້ໄດ້ເດັດຂາດເປັນຕົ້ນໄປ.
  • ສຳລັບບຸກຄົນທີສາມມີກຳນົດໜຶ່ງປີນັບແຕ່ວັນຮັບຊາບຄຳສັ່ງ, ຄຳຊີ້ຂາດ, ຄຳຕັດສິນ, ຄຳພິພາກສາຂອງສານທີ່ໃຊ້ໄດ້ເດັດຂາດແລ້ວ.

ຍື່ນຄຳຂໍຮື້ຟື້ນຕໍ່ອົງການໃດ? ຜູ້ທີ່ບໍ່ພໍໃຈຄໍາຕັດສິນ ຫຼື ຄໍາພິພາກສາຂອງສານທີ່ໃຊ້ໄດ້ຢ່າງເດັດຂາດ ມີສິດຂຽນ ແລະ ຍື່ນຄຳຮ້ອງຂໍຮື້ຟື້ນຄະດີຕໍ່ອົງການໄອຍະການປະຊາຊົນສູງສຸດ ບ່ອນດຽວເທົ່ານັ້ນທີ່ມີສິດ ແລະ ອຳນາດ ພິຈາລະນາຊີ້ຂາດຕາມກົດໝາຍ.

ຖ້າຫາກມີສາເຫດທີ່ພາໃຫ້ຮື້ຟື້ນຄະດີ ຫົວໜ້າອົງການໄອຍະການປະຊາຊົນສູງສຸດ ກໍຈະອອກຄຳສະເໜີຮື້ຟື້ນ ສົ່ງໃຫ້ສານປະຊາຊົນສູງສຸດ. ຖ້າຫາກບໍ່ມີສາເຫດທີ່ພາໃຫ້ມີການຮື້ຟື້ນ ຫົວໜ້າອົງການປະຊາຊົນສູງສຸດກໍຈະອອກຄຳຕົກລົງບໍ່ຮື້ຟື້ນ ແລ້ວແຈ້ງໃຫ້ຄູ່ຄວາມ ແລະ ບຸກຄົນທີສາມຊາບ. ແຕ່ພວກກ່ຽວກໍບໍ່ມີສິດຂໍອຸທອນ ຫຼື ລົບລ້າງແຕ່ຢ່າງໃດ ຖືວ່າຄະດີໄດ້ສິ້ນສຸດແລ້ວ.

ໃນກໍລະນີຫົວໜ້າອົງການປະຊາຊົນສູງສຸດສະເໜີຂໍຮື້ຟື້ນ ແລະ ສົ່ງຄຳສະເໜີຮື້ຟື້ນຫາສານປະຊາຊົນສູງສຸດພິຈາລະນາ ຄຳພິພາກສາຂອງສານດັ່ງກ່າວຈະອອກມາດັ່ງນີ້:

  1. ຖ້າຄຳສະເໜີຮື້ຟື້ນຄະດີບໍ່ມີເຫດຜົນ, ສານປະຊາຊົນສູງສຸດ ກໍຈະລົງຄຳພິພາກສາ ບໍ່ຮື້ຟື້ນຄະດີແລ້ວສົ່ງສໍານວນຄະດີໃຫ້ຫ້ອງການປະຕິບັດຄຳຕັດສິນ.
  2. ຖ້າຄຳສະເໜີຮື້ຟື້ນຄະດີມີເຫດຜົນ, ສານປະຊາຊົນສູງສຸດ, ຈະລົງຄຳພິພາກສາ ສົ່ງຄະດີດັ່ງກ່າວໃຫ້ສານຂັ້ນຕົ້ນທີ່ກ່ຽວຂ້ອງ(ຄະນະໃໝ່) ພິຈາລະນາຄືນໃໝ່ທັງໝົດ. ໝາຍຄວາມວ່າ:ພິຈາລະນາເລີ່ມຕົ້ນໃໝ່ເປັນຂັ້ນຕົ້ນ ຕາມລະບຽບການດຳເນີນຄະດີປົກກະຕິ.

(ວາລະສານ ທາເກັດ ສະບັບທີ 125 ເດືອນທັນວາ  ຕາມເອັມພອຍ ທຸກສາຂາ ຫຼື ສອບຖາມຈອງເປັນ ສະມາຊິກ ໄດ້ທີເບີ 021 216 666)

What is the reopening of a case?

The public and members of the workforce frequently ask me what the reopening of a case is and how the process takes place. Reading Article 3 (new) of the Law on Civil Procedure, this term is not officially defined. To the layman, the meaning of this concept is truly difficult to gain a solid and complete understanding of.

The reopening of cases (civil) is provided for in Articles 313-321 of the Law on Civil Procedure. I will give a brief summary to make it easier to understand:

A case can be reopened at the request of a litigant, who could be the plaintiff, defendant, or a third party, or of the Office of the Supreme Public Prosecutor to question an order, ruling, verdict, or judgment, which is final and has entered into force, of a court.

The following three entities have the right to request the reopening of a case:

  • The plaintiff or defendant of the case in question;
  • A third party (as defined in Article 75 of the Law on Civil Procedure); and
  • The Office of the Supreme Public Prosecutor.

A request for the reopening of a case requires one of four documents – 1. the court order; 2. the ruling; 3. the verdict; or 4. the judgment (which has been issued by the court as final).

The Supreme Court has the exclusive jurisdiction to consider a final verdict or court decision.

There are five cases in which the request for the reopening of a case may be made, as follows:

  1. A case witness has given a false testimony, an expert a false opinion, or an interpreter or translator a false translation, or the evidence has been falsified, resulting in an error in case adjudication;
  2. A judge or member of [the Office of] the Public Prosecutor has colluded with one of the litigants, resulting in an error in case adjudication;
  3. New information or evidence relating to the case comes to light which was not presented during case [proceedings] and the person requesting the reopening of the case had no way of knowing of such information or evidence during adjudication;
  4. An event points to new evidence which was unknown to the court when reaching the verdict or judgment; or
  5. There is a proposal to reopen [the case] by an individual who did not participate in case proceedings relating to the final verdict in effect [and that verdict] affects their legitimate rights and interests (a third party).

Statutes of limitations for the reopening of a case

  • There is no statute of limitations for the Office of the Supreme Public Prosecutor, which has the right to reopen a case in order that the law may be correctly applied (they may request this at any time).

 

  • Plaintiffs and defendants are subject to a prescription period of one year counting from the date on which the final ruling, verdict, or judgment was issued by the court.
  • Third parties are subject to a prescription period of one year counting from the date on which the final ruling, verdict, or judgment was issued by the court.

To which body should a request for the reopening of a case be made? The person dissatisfied with a final and effective verdict or judgment on a case may submit their request to the Office of the Supreme Public Prosecutor, which is the sole body which has the right and authority to reconsider a final ruling in accordance with the law.

In the event that there are grounds for the Office of the Supreme Public Prosecutor to issue a request for the reopening of a case, this request must be sent to the Supreme People’s Court while if there are no grounds for the case to be reopened, the Office of the Supreme Public Prosecutor shall issue a decision to that effect and inform the litigant or third party concerned but they shall have no right to request the appeal or cassation of such a decision and the case shall be considered truly closed.

In the event that the Office of the Supreme Public Prosecutor requests the reopening of a case and sends such an order to the Supreme People’s Court for consideration, the judgments which may be issued by this court shall be as follows:

  1. In the event that there are no grounds for the reopening of the case, the Supreme People’s Court shall issue a judgment not to reopen the case and send the case file to the office responsible for its implementation.
  2. In the event that there are grounds for the reopening of the case, the Supreme People’s Court shall issue a judgment and send the case file to the relevant court of first instance (new judicial council) for the case to be reconsidered in full. This means that the case shall be reconsidered at first instance right from the start in accordance with the normal regulations for case procedure.

 

 

ສະແດງຄຳຄິດເຫັນ